Periodontics

PERIODONTAL (GUM) DISEASES

Periodontal (gum) diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis are serious infections that, left untreated, can lead to tooth loss.

CAUSES OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE

The main cause of periodontal disease is Bacterial Plaque, a sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on your teeth and causes the gums to become inflamed.

GINGIVITIS

In the mildest form of the disease, gingivitis, the gums redden, swell and bleed easily. There usually little or no discomfort. Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good oral home care.

PERIODONTITIS

Untreated gingivitis can advance to periodontitis. With time, plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. Toxins produced by the bacteria in plaque irritate the gums. The toxins stimulate a chronic inflammatory response in which the body in essence turns on itself and the tissues and bone that support the teeth are broken down and destroyed. Gums separate from the teeth, forming pockets (spaces between the teeth and gums) that become infected. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. Often, this destructive process has very mild symptoms. Eventually, teeth can become loose and may have to be removed.

RISK FACTORS

1. Smoking/Tobacco use. Recent studies have shown that tobacco use may be one of the most significant risk factors in the development and progression of periodontal disease.

2. Genetics. Research proves that up to 30% of the population may be genetically susceptible to gum disease. Despite aggressive oral care habits, these people may be 6 times more likely to develop periodontal disease.

3. Hormonikes Disorders ( Puberty, pregnancy, menopause, contraceptives).

The hormone fluctuations do not cause gingivitis but make changes to their dietary habits of microbes, which they replace their nutritional needs for vitamins K with estrogen and progesterone, so they are developed quickly. The hormonal fluctuations increase the permeability of the capillaries, which leads to hemorrhage and edema. All the above flare up from gingivitis or periodontitis and do not seem to affect the healthy gums.

4. Medications. Some drugs, such as oral contraceptives, anti-depressants, and certain heart medicines, can affect your oral health.

5. Diabetes. If you are diabetic, you are at higher risk for developing infections, including periodontal disease.

If you are diagnosed with periodontal disease, your dentist may recommend periodontal treatment (non-surgical or surgical treatment).

  • Your dentist may give you information about periodontal disease
  • Teach you proper Oral Hygiene

Recommends you Conservative periodontal treatment (plaque removal, cleaning) or Periodontal surgery aiming at elimination of pockets, achieving the most normal possible gingival and alveolar bone morphologic characteristics, so that the latter are suitable for reparative restoration.

The following surgical procedures are carried out:

1. Excision techniques (osteotomy-osteoplasty)

(gingivectomy-gingivoplasty)
(root(s) extraction)

(tooth division)

2. Flap surgery

3. Regenerative techniques aiming at lost tissue creation at original site.
The aim is the creation of new alveolar bone, new osteine and new collagen fibers.

The following are included:

a) Guided tissue regeneration (GTR), where the use of membranes allows for the enhancement of clinical adhesion level

b) GTR with bone grafts

c) Biological mediating agent (e.g amelogenin)

d) A combination of the above


4. Pre-prosthetics surgery. What constitutes an important field of periodontics is the regeneration of deficient areas in soft tissues, transplant of gingival with the palate as graft donor site, an area with highly resistant tissues. Which aims at enhancing or fully restore tissue lack, supporting future demands of restorative reparation.

5. Gingival and mucosal and aesthetic surgery
, which is plastic periodontal surgery aiming at the correction of problems in relation to gum morphology, position and mass around the teeth.

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